Sochi. Central railway station.       Sochi. Park Dendrarium.        Sochi. Marina.
1.Sochi. Central railway station.     2.Sochi. Park Dendrarium.    3.Sochi. Marina.

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History of Sochi

    The territory of Sochi beginning to accustom man 400-350 thousand years ago, in the Early Paleolithic, played a prominent role in ancient and medieval history. Here discovered and partially explored many archaeological sites: caves, open parking, an ancient people, dolmens, ruins of fortresses and temples, burial grounds, burial mounds.
    Archaeological survey was conducted in the Sochi region, allowed us to refer it to the category of unique in the variety and quantity, concentration of archaeological monuments and history. These archaeological sites provide a look at the life and times of people in history. We can learn how they lived, dressed and worked on the basis of the found remains. We are opening for the home and art objects, their places of worship and much more.
    Sochi has been registered over 200 unique archaeological monuments. Among them are a Roman-Byzantine fortress on the river Godlik Lazarevsky district, the medieval church in the village of Loo et al, "The early medieval period in the vicinity of Sochi - as noted archaeologist Yuri Voronov - a significant number of settlements, forts and temples." In the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea in the early antique period (4-1 centuries.) lived tribes ahev, Zikhs and Geniokhs, and the first century AD, the main territory of modern Sochi occupied Sanigs that previously were part of a conglomerate geniohskih tribes.
    In the Middle Ages in Sochi resident tribes of the Abkhaz-Adyghe language group, and in the first half of the nineteenth century, the Circassians (Black Sea Shapsugs) Ubykhs Abaza (Saji).
    Monuments stories of indigenous people of this area have survived to our times and require a comprehensive study. Since the second half of the XVI century the Caucasus turned into an arena of struggle between Russia and Turkey and Persia. This fight ends in 1829 Andriapolskogo signing of a peace treaty, under which the Black Sea coast from the mouth of the river Kuban to the fort of St. Nicholas (south of Poti) departed Russia. During the Caucasian War in the 30s of the XIX century was created Black Sea coastline, consisting of the coastal fortifications designed to protect the coast. On the territory of Sochi, Russian troops were built fortifications (Forts) Holy Spirit (Adler), Alexandria (Sochi), Fort Lazarev (Goa) Golovin (Golovinka) and others. The remains of walls and forts are preserved monuments of history.
    After the end of the Caucasian War (1864g.) indigenous population - the (Shapsugs, Ubykhs, Abaza (sazdy) - were forced to leave their homeland. Turkey promoted departure of Shapsugs. The most part of Circassians located in Turkey. Nowadays in Sochi about 4000 Adyghe (Shapsugs).
    Since 1866, after the approval of the "Regulations on the settlement of the Black Sea region" began the process of perenaselencheskogo movement in the area. Inhabit the territory of Sochi Russian, Ukrainians, Belarussians, Armenians, gruzyny, Greeks, Estonians, Moldavians and other nationalities, representing the multi-national composition of modern Sochi. All previous and subsequent events have determined the origin and development of the future of the resort city of Sochi.
    After the end of the Caucasian War in 1864, begins the study of therapeutic factors the Black Sea coast and its development. During this period, on the Black Sea coast was a process of rapid division of the land. The government was unable to solve the problem of industrial development of the region, and deal with it could only be on the basis of private capital. Russian bourgeoisie, in turn, felt the benefit of the province. Here there were new possibilities of application of capital to expand their revenues.
    In 1868, when the press began to appear notes on the distribution of land in the Caucasus, a group of intellectuals has decided to draw up a partnership of people who know not only agriculture, but also the manufacturing industry. The organizers of this partnership are brothers Peter and Alexander Vereshchagin. In partnership includes 50 members. They drew attention to the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and that Sochi (post Dahovsky) where it was decided to organize a central settlement. "As always in these cases it is - writes FP Dobrohotov - the author of the reference book" The Black Sea coast of the Caucasus "in 1916 - comrades were scattered all along the coast, but they initiated the case of colonization has not stopped."
    The author further notes that in 1872, the estate of N. Mammoth was built villa "faith." This construction can be considered as the first dacha construction in the Greater Sochi .. Then there has been some decline in the villa construction in Sochi. An important chapter in the history of the development of Sochi is the work of special commissions had worked for the Study of the Black Sea coast from Novorossiysk to Sukhumi, which started its work in 1898. The jury consisted of Professor A. Voyeikov, FI Pasternatsky and mining engineer AV Sergeyev. The commission's report was presented at the 1-Russian Congress on climatology, hydrology and spa treatment in St. Petersburg in 1898. From the reports indicated that due to the presence of natural resources the Black Sea coast may experience balneotherapy and climatic resorts. However, this required considerable funds, government support and assistance of experienced persons in this case.
    The tsarist government removed from the solution of the problem, but things progressed through the activities of individuals and their investments.
    In the late XIX - early XX centuries. rich land of the Black Sea coast are increasingly attracted industrialists and entrepreneurs. By a decree dated May 23, 1896 The Black Sea Area, which was part of the Kuban region, became an independent Black Sea province. It was the smallest of all the provinces of Russia (6455 square meters. Miles). At the same time the Sochi area has been transformed into custody District. The boundaries of the Sochi district passed the river Dederukay (modern Adler district) to the Department of Sukhumi (Gagra). Since 1901, the border increased at the expense of the Sukhumi district. Since then, the Sochi district occupied the area between the sea and the main Caucasian ridge of Shahe River in the north to the south of the river Bzybi, including Gagra. The same decree (23 May 1896) Dahovsky Posad was renamed Sochi Posad by name Ubykh tribal society "soatshe" who inhabited the area before 1864. On 1 May 1898 Sochi Posad was included in the schedule of settlements with a simplified public administration, ie was in the position of urban settlement. Management consisted of a warden, his helper, and 12 commissioners selected citizens.
    In the late XIX - early XX centuries. Sochi will form the architectural appearance, which had features and characteristics that are unique to the coastal resort towns and distinguish them from other provincial areas. The basic principle of urban planning approach in the construction of Sochi was aimed at the creation of the resort as a garden city. Architecture had the character of the pavilion building, typical park ensembles, in which the main goal of the architects was to achieve harmony of natural landscape architecture. The park is especially proud of the resort city of Sochi.
    The park "Arboretum", founded in 1892, SN Khudekov - author of the famous "History of Dance" publisher and editor of the "St. Petersburg newspaper", collected about a thousand species of plants from all continents of the globe. It is the largest subtropical park in Russia. (Historical and cultural monument of national importance.)
    Park "Riviera" is a "calling card" of Sochi. He was laid in 1898 and belonged to the hereditary honorary citizen of the city of Moscow, a representative of the well-known merchant dynasty, VA Khludov. Arboretum, the park has 240 species of trees and shrubs, including 50 kinds of precious and unique. In the 1901-1903 years. Professor A. Krasnov subtropical flora of the park was built in the host. In 1910-1911,. designed by renowned landscape architect A. Regel laid park named "Random" (Park of the farm "Southern Culture") in the Afternoon.
    Climatic and environmental conditions of the village of Uch-Dere, near Sochi contributed to the development of this area in the base for the treatment of patients with lung turbekulezom. In 1900, the Minister of Agriculture and State Property AS Ermolov Office of Empress Maria bezvozdmezdno was given a plot of land in Uch-Dere area of ​​54.8 acres under unit of the Institute for the poor health of students. And in 1914, it hosted the opening and lighting of the Romanov foster care treatment and conditioning plant built at the expense of the agency. In the area of ​​Uch-Dere and cottages around the siting of many officials in Moscow, the capital's intelligentsia:
- Giving Yevgeny Vasilyevich Pavlov - Privy Councillor, MD, surgeon, professor;
- Estate of the Great Duke Konstantin and Dmitry Konstantinovich;
- Giving Nicholas Savich Abaza - Doctor of Medicine, a member of the State Council, Head of the Press;
- Giving Grigory Krestovnikov - Chairman of the Moscow stock exchange komteta, Chairman of the Moscow Merchant Bank;
- Giving Fedor Nikiforovich Plevako - a prominent lawyer, the court orator;
- Estate Dmitry Sergeyevich Sheremeteva - graph-wing adjutant;
- Giving entrepreneurs Aristova, spikes and others.
    All cottages are located near the sea and had a lovely backyard parks from 3 to 5 hectares of exotic plants. To date in Sochi preserved 20 buildings of the former summer cottages and holiday complexes late XIX-early XX centuries., Registered on the books as objects of historical and cultural heritage.
    The government did not provide any real help in the development of the Sochi region. The report of the Sochi city elders Kartashova the Congress leaders Black Sea coast in St. Petersburg in 1913 stated: "The value for the Russian resort of Sochi as a sufficiently lit and his popularity in this respect is so great that no corner in the whole of European and Asian Russia where they knew no Sochi ... ", but due to poor equipment" great mass of the public prefers to go abroad, living there tens of millions of rubles, and so enriching thence resorts ... And our more gifted nature resorts wither, languish . " All the pressing issues and projects the city government at the time and were ignored.
    After the revolution of 1917 and the Civil War in 1918 to 1920. growth begins intensive resort building. It takes on an unprecedented scale in the 30s. In 1934, approved the first master plan for the reconstruction of the city of Sochi. On the paper were involved in academics Architecture IV Zholtovsky, VA Shuko, AV Schusev, architects IS Kuznetsov, KP Chernopyatov, VV E., brothers AA and KA Vesnins and others.
    Reconstruction of the resort town was conducted shock methods, the design was carried out in conjunction with the construction. In 1935, a road was built on top of the mountain Akhun and 30-meter high observation tower (architect S. Vorobyov). Currently, the tower is a monument of Soviet architecture and city planning.
    In the short time were built complex engineering structures such as Riversky bridge Vereschaginsky Matsesta and viaducts (monuments of architecture and civil engineering Art). During the period from 1934 to 1939. the city has built 19 new health centers. Among them - "Primorje", "The Truth," "Golden Spike" them. SM Kirov them. S. Ordzhonikidze them. Frunze them. Fabricius, they. Voroshilov and others. Undergoes major reconstruction famous Sochi "Macesta" new buildings, including the number 4 - the largest and most comfortable on the draft AP Golubev (a monument of Soviet architecture). Sochi becomes the All-Union health resort.
    Architecture of the buildings was solved in strict harmony with the surrounding nature and carried the specific features of its time. Buildings and structures built in this period, and to this day attracts the attention of residents and guests of the resort.
    Sochi Art Museum (the building of the Commissioner of the USSR Central Executive Committee of the resort of Sochi-Macesta) Winter theater, resort to them. Ordzhonikidze are monuments of architecture and urban planning of national importance. 14 buildings built during the 1st reconstruction of Sochi, declared monuments of Soviet architecture and urban planning, and taken under the protection of the state. During the Great Patriotic War on the basis of the Sochi health centers were deployed hospitals, which restored the health of about 300,000 soldiers and officers. After the war, reconstruction and rehabilitation of growing in magnitude.
    The construction of a sea port, buildings, rail and maritime stations (monuments of civil architecture), the airport, the airport in Adler, Krasnopolyanskaya HPP. During these years, built and put into operation sleeping sanatoriums "Belarus", "Sochi" it. Semashko, "Salute" it. FE Dzherzhinskogo. It creates new health center, "Metallurg", "Dawn", "Russian" Progress "," The Seagull. "Unfold international tourist center" Satellite ", a television center, cinemas, architecturally designed embankments.
    In 1961, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Sochi resort included Adler and Adler areas. Sochi within the new borders stretched from paragraph Magri (on the border with the Tuapse district) to the Psou (the border with Abkhazia).
    In 1967 he accepted a new master plan for the city of Sochi, designed for 25-30 years. The plan called for the formation of complexes of resort and recreational facilities on the entire 145-kilometer coastline with separation zones for agricultural purposes. During these years there has been an intensive residential, industrial, hotel construction. In the 1960s, have been put into operation the hotel "Leningrad", "Kuban", "Sochi", "Magnolia", "Caucasus", "The Seagull" and, later "Camellia", "pearl", "Moscow" hotel complex "Dagomis." A significant development has been the construction of modern boarding houses "Green Grove", "White Nights", "Neva", etc.
    Over the past 5 years have been commissioned beautiful and comfortable motels, boarding houses and hotels in Sochi for 2600 seats. This hotel "Radisson SAS Azure", hotel "Peak Hotel" in the village of Krasnaya Polyana, the hotel "Star" pension "Shexna" health and fitness center "Odyssey Lasarevskoye" Holiday in the sanatorium. Ordzhonikidze, the cascade dormitory with hydropathic sanatorium "Electronics" pension "Torch", sanatorium "October," "Dawn of Russia," pension "Willow," sanatorium "Black Sea" and many others.

Shock construction 1930: what has been done

Sochi coast constantly attracts the attention of the rulers of our country. So it was from the very beginning of the development of the Russian land from Nicholas I, personally gave the order for the construction of fortifications of the Black Sea coastline, during his visit to the Caucasus in 1837. According to this order, and are based forts of the Holy Spirit, Alexandria, Golovin and Lazarev. However, further development of the pre-revolutionary Sochi after the end of the Caucasian war was based on a private initiative.
    It is difficult to say, as if there was the story of Sochi, if once AI Mikoyan not persuaded IV Stalin, who was ill hand, to undergo treatment for Maceste.
    "Macesta Stalin influenced very well. By the end of the treatment he had received a great relief. Pain in the arm almost gone. He was very pleased. But the doctors said that one treatment is small, and he began to go on Matsesta every year. " (A.I. Mikoyan "So it was").
    In 1926, the government adopted a decree on the formation of Sochi Matsesta resort of national importance. It stated: "In order to achieve the best performances affairs spa treatment and the provision of such possible number of workers formed to operate on the basis of economic calculation resorts association of national importance in the Sochi region under the name of" Sochi-Matsesta resort. " Since the mid 20's in Sochi conducted a large-scale comprehensive study to investigate the climatic and geomorphological conditions, opportunities hydromineral base, determine the contours of the resort, environmental, health, and economic forest and park areas, the prospects for the formation of the concept of development of the city and the resort. As a result, research has become apparent the prospect of building the largest resort in Sochi country. important role in the creation of a theoretical and practical foundation for the scientific organization of the spa industry has played in Sochi established here in 1931 named clinic. Stalin Piatigorsky balneotherapeutic Institute, converted in 1936 in the National Clinical Research Institute. Stalin at the resort of Sochi-Macesta (subsequently Research Institute of Balneology and Physiotherapy).
    In 1933 he completed development of a master plan for the reconstruction of Sochi, Matsesta resort, which involved over 25 years of construction not only of vacation, but also an extensive infrastructure. For the project funds were allocated in the amount of 1 billion 400 million rubles. In October of 1933 to guide the reconstruction of the resort created a special department, which is headed by Commissioner of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in the Sochi area at the resort on A.D. Metelev.
    Now, on the eve of the grand Olympic construction, which, as promised, will be confined not only to the construction of Olympic facilities, but also affect the infrastructure of the city, it is useful to look back at what has been done then in the 1930s, for the same seven years.
    By special resolution of SNK on January 8, 1934 construction of the resort of Sochi has been included among the shock settings.
    The greatest amount of work and cost, respectively, accounted for in the first years of a giant road construction. Was laying the foundation of his new motorway Sochi - Macesta - Hosta. In addition, the highway was built from the Old to the New Matsesty, Highway Agoura Akhun and "Walking Trail" 5 km long, running along the coastal slopes of the coast. On the road built gigantic bridges, such as the viaduct over river valley. Macesta length of 411 m, (1936-1938., Architects NA Shuko, VG Gelfreich, AP Giants, AF Boars) Vereschaginskiy girder viaduct over a length of 216 m (1935 ., architects NB Falcons, Lions YS), a new bridge over the river Sochi (1936, architect Zholtovsky IV) and about two dozen minor bridges.
    In the seven years since the beginning of the reconstruction was developed more than 40% of the total amount allocated for the implementation of the master plan, which enables us to complete the basic work to transform the resort. As a result, by 1940, a one-time capacity of more than 60 spa facilities was approximately 9 thousand seats, for the year of treatment and rest in Sochi has visited more than 100 thousand people. On Letting Go Maceste annually to 1 million procedures.
    Implementation of the first master plan developed in 1933 for 25 years, interrupted by the war. But even under the difficult conditions of post-war devastation the state has found an opportunity to allocate funds for the restoration of the resort after the collapse of hospital base in 1946, and almost completely destroyed by the beach.
    In November 1948 approved the draft plan of the city of Sochi, made ​​a team led by engineer-planner I.K. Zhilko.